TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword………………………………………………………………… 1
Acknowledgements………………………………………………….. 5
Table of Contents…………………………………………………….. 7
Part 1 – Introduction to Torticollis…………………………. 11
Presentation of Torticollis………………………………………….. 11
Pediatric and Adult Torticollis…………………………………….. 11
Torticollis and SIDS………………………………………………….. 12
Causes of Torticollis in Adults……………………………………. 13
Muscular Fibrosis……………………………………………………. 14
Congenital Spinal Abnormalities………………………………… 14
Toxic Brain Injury – Encephalopathy……………………………. 15
Traumatic Brain Injury………………………………………………. 16
Scarred or Diseased Cervical Vertebrae…………………….. 17
Arthritis…………………………………………………………………… 17
Tonsillitis…………………………………………………………………. 17
Retropharyngeal Abscess………………………………………… 18
Swollen Lymph Nodes……………………………………………… 18
Brain Tumors………………………………………………………….. 19
Tuberculosis of the Spine…………………………………………. 19
Ideopathic Torticollis…………………………………………………. 20
Causes of Pediatric Torticollis…………………………………… 20
Muscular Damage at Birth………………………………………… 21
Sternocleidomastoid Tumor………………………………………. 22
Klippel-Feil Syndrome………………………………………………. 22
Acquired Torticollis in Infants……………………………………… 23
Self-Limited Incidents……………………………………………….. 23
Posterior Fossa Tumors…………………………………………… 23
Throat, Ear, and Adenoid Infections……………………………. 24
Drug Reactions……………………………………………………….. 24
Part 2 – Understanding Torticollis in Depth…………… 25
Symptoms of Torticollis…………………………………………….. 25
Symptoms in Children……………………………………………… 25
Symptoms in Adults…………………………………………………. 26
Diagnosis of Torticollis……………………………………………… 27
Electromyogram……………………………………………………… 27
X-Rays…………………………………………………………………… 28
Differential Diagnosis Considerations………………………… 28
Treatment of Torticollis…………………………………………….. 30
Treatment for Infants……………………………………………….. 30
Physical Therapy For Adults……………………………………… 31
Medications and Torticollis………………………………………… 32
Botulinum Toxin……………………………………………………….. 33
Denervation Surgery…………………………………………………. 34
Deep Brain Stimulation…………………………………………….. 35
Alternative Torticollis Treatments……………………………….. 36
Massage and Chiropractic Care………………………………… 36
Acupuncture……………………………………………………………. 37
Home Remedies……………………………………………………… 38
Possible Complications……………………………………………. 39
Prognosis in Torticollis Cases……………………………………. 39
Part 3 – Frequently Asked Questions……………………… 41
Selected Case Studies and References…………………….. 49
Botulinum Toxin in Torticollis Treatment………………………. 49
Outcome of Congenital Torticollis Treatment……………….. 50
Manual Stretching in Congenital Torticollis…………………… 51
Deep Brain Stimulation and Torticollis…………………………. 52
Remission in Spasmodic Torticollis……………………………. 53
Afterword………………………………………………………………… 57
Relevant Websites…………………………………………………… 61
Glossary…………………………………………………………………. 63
Index………………………………………………………………………. 67